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Stable Initial Stages of Ontogenesis of Bidens Cernua (Asteraceae) to the Effect of Nickel and Copper Acetates. P. 66–74

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Section: Biology

UDC

582.536.15-114:504.45.054-034

Authors

Krylova Elena Gennad’evna
I.D. Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of the Russian Academy of Sciences Borok settl., Nekouz district, Yaroslavl region, 152742, Russian Federation;
e-mail: panova@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru
Lapirov Aleksandr Grigor’evich
I.D. Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of the Russian Academy of Sciences Borok settl., Nekouz district, Yaroslavl region, 152742, Russian Federation;
e-mail: lapir@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru
Berdnik Kseniya Aleksandrovna
Saint Petersburg State University Universitetskaya nab., 7–9, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation;
e-mail: ksyusha-berdnik@yandex.ru

Abstract

Micro dozes of some heavy metals, including nickel and copper, are vital. However, they have a negative effect on the development of plants if the concentration of their available forms exceeds a certain limit. The plant response at their effect on the most important and sensitive initial stages of ontogeny is of particular interest. The article presents the results of studying the effect of nickel and copper acetates in concentrations of 1–1000 mg/l on the germination of achenes and the initial stages of the seedling development of a hygrophyte Bidens cernua. The experiment proved the resistance of the achene germination to the effect of the studied salts, as they did not cause a complete inhibition of the germination and the toxicity limit was not identified for it. Threshold concentrations at which a toxic effect of the investigated salts appeared were determined: for nickel acetate – 25 mg/l, for copper acetate – 50 mg/l. At high concentrations (500–1000 mg/l) copper acetate was more toxic than nickel acetate. This fact is proved out by a significant decrease of the laboratory germination and changes in the germination behavior. After the root emergence through the achene covers, the seedling development was observed in the solutions with concentrations of 1–25 mg/l of nickel acetate and 1–100 mg/l of copper acetate. Thus, the inhibition of the ontogenetic development of plants was observed at lower concentrations of nickel acetate (10–25 mg/l) in comparison with copper acetate (50–100 mg/l). Meanwhile, both metals inhibited the development of the main root, significantly reduced the sizes of adventitious roots and hypocotyl, and caused a color change of the cotyledons. Decreasing the chlorophyll content in the leaves appeared in the form of chlorosis. The herb growth was more resistant to the effect of acetates (especially, of copper acetate) in comparison with the growth of the main root.

Keywords

Bidens cernua, nickel acetate, copper acetate, seed germination, seedling development
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