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The Effect of Nitrogen on Photosynthesis and Growth of Spruce in the Birch Forests (the Case of Lomovoye Station). P. 51–64

Версия для печати

Section: Biology

UDC

630*221(045)+630*232.322.4(045)

Authors

L.V. Zarubina*
*Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy by N.V. Vereshchagin (Vologda, Russian Federation)
Corresponding author: Liliya Zarubina, address: Shmidt str., 2, Vologda, 160555, Russian Federation; e-mail: Liliya270975@yandex.ru

Abstract

We studied the effect of nitrogen on physiological and growth activity of young spruce in the bilberry birch forests of the northern taiga. The illumination is low under the canopy of ripe birch forests (10– 12 thousand lx) and does not provide the necessary level of solar radiation for subordinate spruce. Due to the lack of light the root respiration and the needle photosynthetic rate of the spruce undergrowth in the birch forests of this age reduce twice in comparison with logging. Nitrogen enhances the physiological processes of young spruce. The needle photosynthetic rate of spruce increases by 8–13 % after the nitrogen introduction in the 53- and 59-year-old bilberry birch forests; the outflow of photoassimilates from the needles accelerates; the supply of growth meristem (growing needles, roots) improves. Other physiological processes are also activated. The accumulation of photosynthetic pigments increases in the needles; water regime is normalized; transpiration efficiency increases in the formation of growth; water saturation of tissues also increases; water deficit slightly declines; the growth processes enhance. For 5 years of the nitrogen influence the additional line growth of apical shoots of spruce undergrowth in the northern bilberry birch forests increases by 19.2–20.8 cm (in the site with a logging – by 20.9– 23.6 cm), in the section with two-pass cutting system and nitrogen – by 36.6 and 35.5 cm, respectively. For 8 years of the complex factor influence (felling + nitrogen) the additional growth of apical shoots of spruce undergrowth in the sites with N180 is 96 cm. Different doses of nitrogen have an ambiguous effect on young spruce. To obtain a positive nitrogen effect for understory spruce in the northern taiga bilberry birch forest the optimum nitrogen dose can be considered as of 180 kg/ha. However, in order to achieve the optimal effect for spruce undergrowth the northern bilberry birch forests should be thinned up to the stand density of 0.5, and then in 2–3 years the indicated dose of nitrogen should be added.

Keywords

bilberry birch forest, spruce undergrowth, nitrogen, root respiration, photosynthesis, physiologic process, growth
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