Address: office 1410a, 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov

Phone: (818-2) 21-61-21
E-mail: vestnik_est@narfu.ru
http://aer.narfu.ru/en/

ABOUT

Conservation of Plant Organic Matter and Soil Formation in Ecosystems of Zonal Tundra of Extreme Northeast Asia. P. 255–264

Версия для печати

Section: Biology

UDC

574.4(571+571.65)

Authors

Aleksey A. Pugachev*, Evgeniy A. Tikhmenev */**
*Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Magadan, Russian Federation)
**North-Eastern State University (Magadan, Russian Federation)

Abstract

The paper studies the features of conservation of organic matter and the functioning of soil-cover complexes in typical tundra phytocenoses of the Far Northeast of Asia. Significant inhibition of the biological cycle of substances in conditions of low temperatures and weak microbiological activity of soils in the tundra zone leads to the conservation of chemical elements in the dead parts of plants. Annual plant litter in the plain tundra is 0.78−1.87 t/ha. Photosynthesizing organs dominate in its structure (49−65 % of litter mass) and roots (31−47 %); the role of lignifying organs is insignificant. the ash and nitrogen content in the litter of previous years can exceed 49−60 times the amount of chemical elements annually transferred with plant residues, which defines the specificity of the soil-forming process. In the dead plant mass of tundra communities, 1.02−2.94 t/ha of chemical elements are preserved for an indefinite period of time, and a considerable part of them is represented by nitrogen (0.33−0.95 t/ha). The decomposition course of dead plant residues in the investigated tundra communities is accompanied by a significant accumulation of silicon, aluminum and iron, substantially less − by calcium, magnesium, as well as by a loss of mobile elements – potassium and phosphorus. The substance exchange between soils and vegetation apparently occurs according to the following scheme: root systems of plants extract mobilized biophilic elements from soil, accumulating them in a synthesized organic matter, the main part of which is concentrated in above-ground organs and peat litter. After the death, decomposition and mineralization, the great part of ashy elements and nitrogen of plant litter remains in the upper part of the profile. The bulk of them is involved into the biological cycle, a certain amount migrates into the mineral part of the profile or carried out beyond the landscape with surface waters. The obtained data allow considering tundra landscapes as natural accumulators of transformed solar energy and organogens at a global scale.

Keywords

tundra landscape, soil-biological process, phytomass stock, plant litter, conservation of organic matter
Download (pdf, 2.4MB )

References

  1. Shilo N.A. Rel’ef i geologicheskoe stroenie [Relief and Geological Structure]. Sever Dal’nego Vostoka [North of the Far East]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1970, pp. 21–83. (In Russ.) 
  2. Tomirdiaro S.V. Prirodnye protsessy i osvoenie territoriy zony vechnoy merzloty [Natural Processes and Development of the Permafrost Zone]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1978. 145 p. (In Russ.) 
  3. Vikhireva-Vasil’kova V.V., Gavrilyuk V.A., Shamurin V.F. Nadzemnaya i podzemnaya rastitel’naya massa nekotorykh kustarnichkovykh soobshchestv Koryakskoy zemli [Top and Foot End Vegetation of Some Suffruticose Communities of Koryakskaya Zemlya]. Problemy Severa [Problems of the North]. Moscow; Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1964, iss. 8, pp. 130–147. (In Russ.) 
  4. Ignatenko I.V., Khakimzyanova F.I. Pochvy i zapasy obshchey fitomassy v ernikovo-driadovoy i ivnyakovoy tundrakh [Soils and Stocks of Total Phytomass in Bushy-Dryad and Willow Tundra]. Ekologiya [Russian Journal of Ecology], 1971, no. 5, pp. 17–24. 
  5. Pavlova E.B. O rastitel’noy masse tundr Zapadnogo Taymyra [On the Plant Mass of Western Taimyr Tundra]. Vestnik MGU. Ser. 6: Biologiya. Pochvovedenie [Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin. Ser. 6: Biology. Soil Science], 1965, no. 5, pp. 62‒67. 
  6. Rodin L.E., Bazilevich N.I. Dinamika organicheskogo veshchestva i biologicheskiy krugovorot zol’nykh elementov i azota v osnovnykh tipakh rastitel’nosti zemnogo shara [Dynamics of Organic Matter and Biological Cycle of Ash Constituents and Nitrogen in the Main Types of Vegetation of the Globe]. Moscow; Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1965. 254 p. (In Russ.) 
  7. Pugachev A.A., Tikhmenev E.A. Konservatsiya organicheskogo veshchestva v tundrovykh landshaftakh Severo- Vostoka Evrazii [Conservation of Organic Matter in Tundra Landscapes of the Northeast of Eurasia]. Prirodnoe nasledie Rossii: izuchenie, monitoring, okhrana: materialy mezhdunar. konf. (Tol’yatti, 21–24 sentyabrya 2004 g.) [Natural Heritage of Russia: Study, Monitoring, Protection: Proc. Intern. Conf. (Togliatti, September 21‒24, 2004]. Togliatti, 2004, pp. 220–221. (In Russ.) 
  8. Pugachev A.A., Tikhmenev E.A. Strukturno-funktsional’naya organizatsiya i dinamika pochvenno-rastitel’nogo pokrova Kraynego Severo-Vostoka Rossii: monogr. [Structurally Functional Organization and Dynamics of Soil and Vegetation Cover of the Far Northeast of Russia]. Magadan, North-Eastern State Univ. Publ., 2011. 197 p. (In Russ.) 
  9. Bogdanov I.E., Ignatenko I.V., Pugachev A.A. Pochvy, zapasy rastitel’noy massy i produktivnost’ krupnokustarnikovykh tundr yugo-zapadnoy Chukotki [Soils, Vegetable Stocks and Productivity of Large-Shrubby Tundra of Southwestern Chukotka]. Biologicheskaya produktivnost’ i ee uvelichenie v interesakh narodnogo khozyaystva [Biological Productivity and Its Increase for the Benefit of the National Economy]. Moscow, Moscow State Univ. Publ., 1979, pp. 26–27. (In Russ.) 
  10. Pugachev A.A. Biologicheskiy krugovorot i pochvoobrazovanie v landshaftakh Kraynego Severo-Vostoka Rossii [Biological Cycle and Soil Formation in the Landscapes of the Far North-East of Russia]. Magadan, North-East Sci. Center of the FEB RAS Publ., 2009. 116 p. (In Russ.) 
  11. Smorodnikova N.Yu. Zapasy i struktura rastitel’noy massy arkticheskoy tundry ostrova Vrangelya [Reserves and Structure of Plant Mass of Arctic Tundra of Wrangel Island]. Biologicheskie problemy Severa: tez. dokl. X Vsesoyuz. simp. [Biological Problems of the North: Proc. 10th All-Union Acad. Conf.]. Magadan, 1983, pp. 210–211. (In Russ.) 
  12. Yurtsev B.A. Problemy botanicheskoy geografii Severo-Vostochnoy Azii [Problems of Botanical Geography of Northeast Asia]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1974. 160 p. (In Russ.) 
  13. Aleksandrova V.D. Geobotanicheskoe rayonirovanie Arktiki i Antarktiki [Geobotanical Zoning of the Arctic and Antarctic]. Komarovskie chteniya, vyp. 29 [Komarov’s Readings, Iss. 29]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1977. 190 p. (In Russ.) 
  14. Yurtsev B.A., ed. Arkticheskaya floristicheskaya oblast’ [The Arctic Floristic Region]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1978. 166 p. (In Russ.) 
  15. Belikovich A.V., Galanin A.V., Tregubov O.D. Podzona tipichnykh i yuzhnykh tundr [Subzone of Typical and Southern Tundra]. Priroda i resursy Chukotki [Nature and Resources of Chukotka]. Magadan, North-East Sci. Center of the FEB RAS Publ., 2006, pp. 93–95. (In Russ.) 
  16. Klyukin N.K. Klimat [Climate]. Sever Dal’nego Vostoka [North of the Far East]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1970, pp. 101‒132. (In Russ.) 
  17. Bazilevich N.I., Titlyanova A.A., Smirnov V.V., Rodin L.E., Nechaeva N.T., Levin F.I. Metody izucheniya biologicheskogo krugovorota v razlichnykh prirodnykh zonakh [Methods of Biological Cycle Studying in Various Natural Zones]. Moscow, Mysl’ Publ., 1978. 178 p. (In Russ.) 
  18. Yurtsev B.A., Koroleva T.M., Petrovskiy V.V., Polozova T.G., Zhukova P.G., Katenin A.E. Konspekt flory Chukotskoy tundry [Abstract of Flora of Chukotka Tundra]. Saint Petersburg, VVM Publ., 2010. 628 p. (In Russ.)