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Heavy Metals in Snow Cover of Arkhangelsk and Evaluation of Their Influence on Population Health. C. 57–68

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Section: Biology




Natal’ya B. Chagina*, Elena A. Ayvazova**, Nikolay L. Ivanchenko*,
Evgeniy A. Varakin*, Nikita A. Sobolev*
*Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation)
**Northern State Medical University (Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation)


Air pollutants in the city of Arkhangelsk are stationary sources (industrial enterprises) and transport. As a result of their influence the atmosphere is polluted not only by corrosive gases, heavy metals but also by particulate matter of the unknown composition. Therefore, the information about the pollutants in an urban environment is incomplete. This study is aimed to obtain data on the content of heavy metals in the snow cover (in solution and in suspended particles) in Arkhangelsk in the winter period, as well as to assess risk of their negative impact on the population and urban environment in 2015– 2016. The methods of electron microscopy (EM) with the system of energy-dispersive analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used. Physical and chemical parameters of snow precipitation (pH, conductivity) and traffic load are defined on the plots. The qualitative composition of snowfall in the study area is represented by 1–4th hazard classes’ metals; lead and vanadium are presented directly in the snow (melt water) and in the solid particles. According to the research we set up the concentration series of heavy metals in the snow (2015–2016): Fe > Cu > Mn > Ni > Pb > Cd > Cr (ICP-AES method) and Fe > Al > Zn > Mn > V > Cu > > Pb > Ni > Pb > Cd (ICP-MS method); as a part of the solid particles (2015): Fe > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cr > > Pb > Co > Cd (NPP method) and Fe > Pb > Zr > Ni > V > Ti, Pt (EM method). The danger coefficients and hazard indices are calculated for heavy metals in the snowfall composition. The risk of general toxic effects is identified for the respiratory system and central nervous system.


urban atmosphere, stationary pollution source, traffic load, snowfall qualitative composition, heavy metals content, suspended solids, danger coefficient, hazard index

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