Founder: Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov

Editorial office address: Russian Federation, 163002, Arkhangelsk, Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny 17, office 1410a

Phone: (818-2) 21-61-00(15-33)



Speed of Sound Impulse Propagation in Pine Wood. P. 78–85

Версия для печати

Section: Biology




Tyukavina Olga Nikolaevna
Forestry Engineering Institute, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (Arkhangelsk, Russia)


The quality of wood can de effectively assessed using Arbotom impulse tomography unit. In order to apply acoustic tomography for tree structure analysis one needs to create speed of sound propagation scales for various wood species. The paper analyzes the speed of sound impulse propagation in pine wood under various growing conditions. We found that in healthy wood the speed ranges from 1,400 to 2,000 m/s and in pine wood growing on marshes – from 2,000 to 2,600 m/s. Pine wood growing on soils with similar water regime showed no significant differences in the speed of sound impulses. No significant correlation was found between the speed of sound propagation in the wood and its morphometric parameters or age of the tree on either of the test areas. In addition, we singled out some peculiarities of the use of Arbotom unit and found that it fails to reveal wood decay in its initial stages. To assess the quality of wood we recommend ignoring the indications of series-connected sensors.


acoustic tomography, quality of wood, pine, speed of sound impulse propagation
Download (pdf, 3MB )


  1. GOST 56-69-83. Ploshchadi probnye lesoustroitel’nye. Metod zakladki [State Standard 16128-70. Trial Forest Management Areas. Establishment Method]. Moscow, 1984. 60 p.
  2. Gusev I.I., Kalinin V.I. Lesnaya taksatsiya [Forest Inventory]. Leningrad, 1988. 61 p.
  3. Kazanskaya N.S., Lanina V.V., Marfenin N.N. Rekreatsionnye lesa [Recreational Forests]. Moscow, 1977. 96 p.
  4. Kisternaya M.V. Izmenenie anatomicheskogo stroeniya drevesiny sosny pod vliyaniem lesokhozyaystvennykh meropriyatiy [Change of Anatomic Structure of Pine Timber Under Influence of Forest Management Measures]. Lesnoy zhurnal, 2007, no. 4, pp. 19–24.
  5. Kozlov V.A., Kisternaya M.V., Neronova Ya.A. Vliyanie lesokhozyaystvennykh meropriyatiy na plotnost’ i khimicheskiy sostav drevesiny sosny obyknovennoy [Influence of Forestry Measures on Density and Chemical Wood Composition of Scotch Pine]. Lesnoy zhurnal, 2009, no. 6, pp. 7–13.
  6. Melekhov V.I., Babich N.A., Korchagov S.A. Kachestvo drevesiny sosny v kul’tu-rakh [Quality of Pine Wood in Stands]. Arkhangelsk, 2003. 110 p.
  7. Poluboyarinov O.I. Plotnost’ drevesiny [Wood Density]. Moscow, 1976. 160 p.
  8. Sukachev V.N., Zonn S.V. Metodicheskie ukazaniya k izucheniyu tipov lesa [Methodological Guidelines for Studying Forest Types]. Moscow, 1961.
  9. Tyukavina O.N. K voprosu o plotnosti drevesiny [On Wood Density]. Ekologicheskie problemy Arktiki i severnykh territoriy: mezhvuz. sb. nauch. tr. [Ecological Problems in the Arctic and on Northern Territories: Interuniversity Collected Papers]. Arkhangelsk, 2013. Iss 16, pp. 177–178.
  10. Tyukavina O.N. Stroenie drevesiny sosny v sosnyakakh kustarnichkovo-sfagnovykh osushennykh [The Structure of Pine Wood in Drained Shrub-Sphagnum Pine Forests]. Problemy lesovedeniya i lesovodstva: sb. materialov Vseros. konf.: Chetvertye Melekhovskie nauchnye chteniya, posvyashchennye 105-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya I.S. Melekhova [Problems of Silviculture: Proc. All-Russian. Conf.: 4th Melekhov Sci. Readings dedicated to the 105th anniversary of I.S. Melekhov]. Arkhangelsk, 10–12 November 2010. Arkhangelsk, 2010, pp. 122–125.
  11. Chibisov G.A., Moskaleva S.A. Kachestvo drevesiny el’nikov, formiruyushchikhsya posle vyborochnykh rubok [Quality of Spruce Wood in Forests Formed After Selective Cutting]. Lesnoy zhurnal, 2000, no. 4, pp. 26–31.
  12. Shchekalev R.V., Tarkhanov S.N. Radial’nyy prirost i kachestvo drevesiny sosny obyknovennoy v usloviyakh atmosfernogo zagryazneniya [Radial Growth and Wood Quality of Scots Pine Under Air Pollution]. Yekaterinburg, 2006. 127 p.
  13. Bucur V. Nondestructive Characterization and Imaging of Wood. Berlin, 2003.
  14. Catena A. Thermography Reveals Hidden Tree Decay. Arboricultural Journal, 2003, no. 27, pp. 27–42.
  15. Deflorio G., Fink S., Schwarze F.W.M.R. Detection of Incipient Decay in Tree Stems with Sonic Tomography After Wounding and Fungal Inoculation. Wood Sci. Technol., 2008, no. 42, pp. 117–132.
  16. Wang L., Xu H., Zhou C., Li L., Yang X. Effect of Sensor Quantity on Measurement Accuracy of Log Inner Defects by Using Stress Wave. Journal of Forestry Research, 2007, no. 18 (3), pp. 221–225.
  17. Liang S., Fu F. Relationship Analysis Between Tomograms and Hardness Maps in Determining Internal Defects in Euphrates Poplar. Wood Research, 2012, no. 57 (2), pp. 221–230.
  18. Lonsdale D. Principles of Tree Hazard Assessment and Management. London, 1999.
  19. Luo J., Yang X. Study on the Correlation Between Mechanical Characteristics and Nondestructive Testing of Stress Wave in Larch Logs. Advanced Materials Research, 2012, vols. 433–440, pp. 2135–2141.
  20. Radiata Pine Wood Density. Information Bulletin no 2. June 2003.
  21. Repola J. Models for Vertical Wood Density of Scots Pine, Norway Spruce and Birch Stems, and Their Application to Determine Average Wood Density. Silva Fennica, 2006, no. 40 (4), pp. 673–685.
  22. Rinn F. Technische Grundlagen der Impuls-Tomographie. Baumzeitung, 2003, no. 8, pp. 29 –31.
  23. Ross R.J., Pellerin R.F. Nondestructive Testing for Assessing Wood Members in Structures: A Review. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-70. Madison, WI, 1994. 40 p.
  24. Rust S., Göcke L. PICUS Sonic Tomograph – A New Device for Nondestructive Timber Testing. International Symposium on Plant Health in Urban Horticulture. Braunschweig, 2000.
  25. Sandoz J.L., Benoit Y., Demay L. Wood Testing Using Acousto-Ultrasonic. Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Wood. 13–15 September 2000, University of Western Hungary, Sopron, Hungary. 2000, pp. 97–104.
  26. Schwarze F.W.M.R., Fink S. Ermittlung der Holzzersetzung am lebenden Baum. Neue Landshaft, 1994, no. 39, pp. 182–193.