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Features of River Runoff Formation in the Lake- River Water Collection Systems in the Western Part of the White Sea. P. 161–172

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Section: Geosciences

UDC

556.512+551.46(268.46)

Authors

Aleksandra S. Bulavina*
*Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Kola Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Murmansk, Russian Federation)

Abstract

The paper studies the hydrological regime of the lake-river water collection systems of the western part of the White Sea and the influence of artificial regulation and climate changes on the hydrological regime of rivers of the region based on the analysis of long series of observations (1931–1996) for main hydrological characteristics. The hydropower development of the rivers in the region contributes to an increase in low-flows and a reduction of flow during the flood in the mid-annual runoff. The climate change occurring in the region also contributes to this change. The average temperatures and annual precipitation in the western part of the White Sea catchment area increase during the study period. The most significant increase of these parameters are observed in the cold half-year, contributing to a partial melting of snow cover in the winter period. The phase of increased water and moisture content is marked in the catchment area of the White Sea during the studied period. Positive trends in average annual water expenditure are noted in all rivers of the region. According to the State Hydrological Institute estimations, the increase in average annual temperatures and amount of precipitation continues at present time. Considering the preservation of the observed climate trends, we can assume further smoothing of seasonal fluctuations in the runoff characteristics. The coefficients of conditional water exchange for large lakes and reservoirs in the region are calculated. Most water bodies are characterized by weak external water exchange and, therefore, are able to absorb a significant amount of pollutants, including anthropogenic origin. A large number of lakes in the catchment areas of rivers can significantly reduce the flow of solid runoff and dissolved chemicals into the sea.

Keywords

hydrological regime, White Sea basin, annual distribution of stream flow, variability of river runoff, conditional water exchange, lake flowage
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