Founder: Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov

Editorial office address: Russian Federation, 163002, Arkhangelsk, Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny 17, office 1410a

Phone: (818-2) 21-61-00(15-33)



Development of introduced species Malus Mill. (Rosaceae Adans.) in South Karelia. P. 37–44

Версия для печати

Section: Biology


582.734.3: 581.522




IT Kishchenko1
1 Petrozavodsk State University (Petrozavodsk, Russian Federation)


This study contains findings of research carried out at the Botanical Garden of Petrozavodsk State University (South Karelia, central taiga subzone) in April – October in the period from 1986 to 2012. The subjects of the studies were introduced plants of three species of Malus Mill.: dwarf apple – Malus baccata (L.) Borkh., wild apple – Malus sylvestris Mill., and Niedzwetzky’s apple – Malus niedzwetzkyana Dieck. ex Koehne. Phenological observations were carried out once in 3 days by the N. Bulygin technique (1979). The phenophase was considered to have occurred if it was observed in at least 30% of the shoots of all specimens of the species under study. All samples were checked for compliance with the normal probability law. The correlation coefficients and differences between the mean values were verified to determine their reliability. Elementary statistics obtained demonstrate, among other things, that the experiment’s accuracy rate is fairly high (4–6%), while the variation coefficient is small (18–22%). It was found that M. baccata trees begin and end most of their phenophases approximately 5–10 days earlier than the other studied species. Furthermore, in the beginning and middle of the growing period, phonological phases of M. baccata proceed at colder weather compared to the other studied Malus species. At the end of the growing period, these differences among the species level off. Of all the studied climatic factors, air temperature has the most measurable positive influence on the development of Malus species in Karelia. Daily average air humidity and precipitation have a less prominent influence on еру phenophases of the studied Malus species. The course and strength of such influence depend on the peculiarities of the phenophase itself. All the studied introduced Malus species show a high degree of introduction prospect (82−93 points) and can be successfully used in Karelia for gardening and landscaping purposes.


introduction, development, Malus, ecological factors, South Karelia
Download (pdf, 0.5MB )


  1. Belorusets ES, Gorb VK (1900) Lilac [Siren]. Vintage, Kiev, 176 рp.
  2. Bulygin NE (1979) Phenological observations over woody plants [Fenologicheskie nablyudeniya nad drevesnymi rasteniyami]. 97 pp.
  3. Buntsevich LL, Kostyuk MA, Paletskaya EN (2012) Fruit growing and Russian grapes [Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii]. Vol. 31(1.1), 55–61.
  4. Kolsnichenko AN (1985) Seasonal rhythms of exotic species of wood development [Sezonnye ritmy razvitija drevesnyh introducentov]. Ohrana, izuchenie i obogashhenie rastitelnogo mira [Guard, study and enrichment of the plant world] (Kiev) 12: 53–59.
  5. Kondratenko TYe, Kondratenko PV (2015) Phenology of apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.) In Kyiv Region in the context of climate change [Phenology of apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.) in Kyiv Region in the context of climate change]. Plant Varieties Studying and Protection [Plant Varieties Studying and Protection] 1–2(26–27): 49–53.
  6. Kovaleva SV, Namzalov BB (2009) Some features of the Malus boccata apple tree development in the city of Chita (Eastern Transbaikalia) [Nekotorye osobennosti razvitiya yabloni Malus boccata v usloviyakh goroda Chita (Vostochnoe Zabaykale)]. Vestnik Buryatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Buryat State University] 4: 118–121.
  7. Lapin PI (1967a) Seasonal rhythm of development of woody plants and its importance for the introduction. [Sezonnyj ritm razvitija drevesnyh rastenij i ego znachenie dlja introdukcii]. Bjul. GBS AN SSSR [Bul. GBS USSR] 65: 12–18.
  8. Lapin PI (1967b) Seasonal rhythm of development of woody plants and its significance for introduction [Sezonnyy ritm razvitiya drevesnykh rasteniy i ego znachenie dlya introdukcii] Byul. GBS AN SSSR [Bul. Head of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR] 65: 12–18.
  9. Loginov VB (1980) To the method of constructing specific theories Introductions [K metodike postroenija chastnyh teorij introdukcii] Teorii i metody introdukcii rastenij i zelenogo stroitel’stva. Mater. Resp. konf. Kiev [Theory and methods of introduction of plants and green building. Mater. Resp. conf. Kiev.] 58–60.
  10. Plotnikova LS, Gubin EM (1986) Growth and development of woody plants in the culture [Rost i razvitie drevesnyh rastenij v kulture] Sezonnyj ritm introducirovannyh drevesnyh rastenij flory SSSR. GBS AN SSSR [Seasonal rhythm of introduced woody plants of the USSR flora . GBS USSR], 127–149.
  11. Potapovа SA (1985) Dynamics of shoot growth of introduced species of pine [Dinamika rosta pobegov introducirovannyh vidov sosen]. Bjul. GBS AN SSSR [Bul. GBS USSR] 137: 28–31.
  12. Repykh MV, Popova NN (2015) Selection of apple plants on the basis of phenology on the lower tarris of the Botanical Garden. Sun. M. Krutovsky [Otbor matochnykh rasteniy yabloni po fenologii na nizhney tarrase Botanicheskogo sada im. Vs. M. Krutovskogo]. Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo agrarnogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Krasnoyarsk Agrarian University] 1: 28–31.
  13. Shkutko NV (1991) Conifer Belarus [Hvojnye Belorussii]. Nauka,Moscow, 263 pp.
  14. Shestopalova VV (1982) Results of the introduction of pine (Pinaceae Lindl.) on the Central Russian Upland and prospects of their use. cand. biol. sci. diss. [Itogi introdukcii sosnovyh (Pinaceae Lindl.) na Srednerusskoj vozvyshennosti i perspektivy ih ispolzovanija. Kand. biol. nauk. diss.]. Kiev, 22 pp.